When it comes to writing, consistency is key. Have you ever seen "e-mail” written as "email” or "e-Mail,” or perhaps even "E-Mail?” Which is UC’s style?
Is it "website,” "web site” or "Web site?” And after a physician’s name, do you write "MD” or "M.D.?”
If you are uncertain how to spell a certain word, punctuate a medical degree or abbreviate a word, the UC Academic Health Center style guide will help you address these common writing issues. The guide is designed to serve as an editorial standard by providing consistent writing solutions for anyone writing about the university and its affiliates. By using the same similar style, communicators will achieve consistency in writing and messaging university-wide.
The style guide, updated regularly, is a supplement to the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook and Libel Manual and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, two of the preferred reference guides for journalists today. In general, we follow AP style. When AP style doesn’t answer the question, we refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition. We use Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, for spellings, abbreviations and place names. When a choice of spelling is given, accept the first.
Academic Health Center—The University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center is located in the Corryville neighborhood of Cincinnati and includes the colleges of allied health sciences, medicine, nursing and pharmacy, Hoxworth Blood Center, UC Barrett Cancer Institute at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the Metabolic Diseases Institute on UC's Reading Campus and UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians. Teaching and research affiliates include University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Shriners Hospital for Children–Cincinnati, Jewish Hospital, Christ Hospital and the UC Neuroscience Institute.
African-American—Always hyphenated, both as compound adjective and noun. According to AP, black is the preferred term.
Abbreviations—Don’t use periods in MD, IV, USA, PhD, etc.
Note: An abbreviation is not necessarily an acronym, which is an abbreviation that can be pronounced as a word, e.g., UNESCO, NATO.
Don’t use an abbreviation of an organization’s name in parentheses following the name , e.g., Food and Drug Administration (FDA), unless the organization is referred to again in the copy. Then in subsequent references use the abbreviation.
When abbreviating units of measure, follow Webster, e.g., mm, a 20-mm instrument.
In nonscientific copy, however, it’s normal to spell out units of measure (pound, inch, year, day, month, minute, etc.).
Academic fields (specialties)—Not capped when used outside of an official name or title, e.g., "He studied radiology at Harvard." "She is now chair of radiology."
Acronyms—No periods, e.g., CORVA, HUD, ORSANCO. Note: a group of initials is called an "acronym" only when it forms a pronounceable "word.” E.g., FDA, ACS, etc., are not acronyms. They are simply abbreviations or "initialisms.” NATO is.
Addresses—Abbreviate to "St.," "Ave." etc. when the street number is given, e.g., "4545 Vine St." Spell out when no number is given, e.g., "The new building is on Vine Street." When full mailing address is used with a ZIP code, use the abbreviation preferred by the U.S. Post Office (computers can read them), e.g., "4545 Vine St., Cincinnati, OH 45242." This two-letter abbreviation (OH) is intended for mailing addresses only.
In other contexts, abbreviate names of states using the traditional abbreviations, e.g., "Atlanta, Ga., Birmingham, Ala." Never use the "GA," "AL" zip abbreviation in these situations. Reserve these for mail addresses with ZIP codes.
Administration—Lower case when not used in a full, formal title.
Alumni—Alumnus refers to one male who attended a college or to a former student of unspecified gender. Alumna refers to one female. Alumni refers to two or more former students, all or some of whom are all male. Alumnae refers to two or more females.
Ampersand—As a general rule avoid "&," unless in corporate names, e.g., Procter & Gamble, AT&T.
Annual—Use only to describe an event that has been held every year for at least two years. Do not use the word annual to describe a first-time event. Instead explain that it is planned to be held annually. UC style calls for "annual meeting" to be lowercase in all uses. See meetings.
Apostrophe s—See AP for use in the possessive.
Don't use the apostrophe to form plurals of proper names. It's "the Simpsons" when talking about the whole family. In possessives of plurals, the apostrophe follows the s—"the Schumachers' new house."
NOTE: In italicized and boldfaced words, the apostrophe "s" (possessives and plurals of certain abbreviations and lowercase letters) should not be not italicized or bolded.
Area—Hyphenate when used adjectivally in expressions like "Cincinnati-area philanthropist John Smith."
Art (Works of)—Put in quotes. e.g., Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa." See Composition titles in AP.
Articles, papers, lectures, etc.—Enclose in quotes. John Smith's article, "The Rise of the Third Son." See Composition titles in AP.
Attribution (of quotes)—In pulled quotes or call-outs followed by an em-dash and attribution, do it this way:
"The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation." —Thoreau.
Awards—Upper-and-lower in full reference, e.g., Nurse the Year Award. The Gold Medal of the Radiological Society of North America. Lowercase in abbreviated reference, e.g., the university’s most coveted award; the gold medal; He has received a second gold medal ...
Barrett Center—Name only when referencing a clinical location of care. First reference: UC Health Barrett Center. Second reference: Barrett Center.
Preferred descriptive language: The UC Health Barrett Center is the primary adult outpatient cancer treatment facility of the UC Cancer Institute. The facility is part of UC Medical Center.
Birth weight—Two words.
Black—Lowercase when referring to African-Americans. Same applies to "white" for Caucasians.
Board of Trustees—Capitalize when used as a proper name: The University of Cincinnati (UC) Board of Trustees; UC Board of Trustees. Lowercase when used as a generic reference: UC's board of trustees.
NOTE: Consider Board of Trustees to be a notional singular: The measure was approved by the UC Board of Trustees at its November meeting. The UC Board of Trustees has approved the measure.
Boldface—Punctuation follows the typeface immediately preceding it. A following semicolon, comma, period, etc., should be in italic or bold. Parentheses, however, before and after should be in body type.
NOTE: Apostrophes (possessives and some plurals) of boldfaced or italicized words are not boldfaced or italicized
Boldface and punctuation—Punctuation follows the typeface immediately preceding it. E.g., "Dan Storer, MD, director of the program ... "
NOTE: Apostrophes (possessives and some plurals) of boldfaced or italicized words are not boldfaced or italicized, e.g., "Dan Storer's study ... "
Books—Use italics for titles of books, journals, newspapers and magazines. This differs from AP, which calls for quotation marks.
Boilerplate—Use the following in reference to UC's centers and programs.
Academic Health Center The University of Cincinnati is one of the largest medical centers in Ohio. It comprises the colleges of medicine, nursing, pharmacy and allied health sciences, Hoxworth Blood Center and the Metabolic Diseases Institute on UC’s Reading Campus. Teaching and research affiliates include University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the Shriners Hospital for Children-Cincinnati and UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians.
College of Medicine
Founded in 1819, the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine is the second-oldest public medical school in the country and the oldest west of the Alleghenies. The college has more than 1,300 faculty members and nearly 1,300 medical and graduate students. Deeply involved in research, the college and the affiliated Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center received more than $300 million in research funding in 2010.Patient care is provided by UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians, a 650-member faculty group practice, and various faculty private-practice groups at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the college's primary teaching hospital, and other area hospitals.
College of Nursing
Founded in 1889, the College of Nursing was the first school in the country to offer a baccalaureate program in nursing, and received the first endowment ever given to a nursing program. The College of Nursing currently has over 800 students, including undergraduate, graduate and PhD candidates, making it the 12th-largest nursing school in the United States in terms of students and faculty, according to U.S.News & World Report. The college is also in the top 6 percent in research funding.
College of Pharmacy UC's James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, one of the oldest pharmacy colleges in the United States, offers both professional practice (PharmD) and graduate (MS and PhD) degrees. Supported by an active research faculty, the college provides students with an opportunity to develop their individual skills. Graduates of the college have a 100 percent placement rate prior to graduation, and are highly sought after by professional and pharmaceutical employers. The most recent class of PharmD graduates achieved a 100 percent passing grade on the National Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NABPLEX).
Diabetes Center UC's Diabetes Center is the only comprehensive adult diabetes center in the region and works closely with patients’ primary health care providers to ensure the creation of a coordinated care plan. The center offers self-management education classes on topics including how to monitor blood glucose, guidelines for dining out, how to read food labels, the benefits of increased physical activity, and psychologically adjusting to living with diabetes, among others. The Diabetes Center is located in the UC Health Physicians Office-Clifton, 222 Piedmont Ave.
NetWellness is a nonprofit, consumer health website that provides high-quality information created and evaluated by medical and health professional faculty at the University of Cincinnati, Case Western Reserve University and Ohio State University. NetWellness is dedicated to improving the health of Ohioans and people worldwide through information that is scientifically sound, of high quality and unbiased. The 300 health professionals who respond to questions include physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, dentists, genetics counselors, optometrists, athletic trainers and social workers. NetWellness NetWellness is a nonprofit, consumer health Web site that provides high-quality information created and evaluated by health professions faculty at the University of Cincinnati, Case Western Reserve University and Ohio State University. Started in June 1995, NetWellness was one of the first health sites on the Internet.
NetWellness NetWellness is a nonprofit, consumer-health Web site that provides information created and evaluated by faculty physicians at UC, Case Western Reserve University and Ohio State University. Started in 1995, NetWellness was one of the first health sites on the Internet.
UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute The University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute is a collaborative effort of 11 academic departments at the UC College of Medicine, UC Health and independent physician practice groups. The institute is dedicated to patient care, research, education and the development of new medical technologies. The university established the institute in 1998 as part of an effort to build upon its national reputation for excellence in neuroscience. The institute includes research centers that focus on the main diseases of the brain and nerves.
UC Health UC Health, the University of Cincinnati's affiliated health system, includes University of Cincinnati Medical Center, West Chester Hospital, Drake Center, University of Cincinnati Physicians, Lindner Center of HOPE and several institutes focusing on cancer, neuroscience, cardiovascular and diabetes. To learn more, visit UCHealth.com.
UC Physicians University of Cincinnati Physicians is the multispecialty clinical practice group of the UC College of Medicine and is affiliated with UC Health. The group includes approximately 650 physicians and an additional 200 nurse practitioners, physicians assistants, psychologists and certified nurse anesthetists who provide care to more than 1 million patients annually through all Greater Cincinnati hospitals and nearly 30 outpatient locations. The group also provides physician coverage for the region’s only Level I adult trauma center and emergency departments at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Jewish Hospital and West Chester Hospital.
University of Cincinnati The University of Cincinnati is one of America's top 20 public research institutions and the region's largest employer, with a student population of more than 39,000. Its faculty includes members of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine and winners of Tony, Grammy and Pulitzer prizes. Approximately $400 million in sponsored research occurs each year at the university's four campuses and the university has an economic impact of $3 billion annually. U.S.News has described UC as one of 15 "up and coming" universities. The Chronicle of Higher Education calls UC a "research heavyweight." Forbes Magazine named UC one of the world's most beautiful campuses. UC is the only public institution in Ohio named a "green university" by Princeton Review.
Research Disclaimer (example) The research was funded by Celgene Corporation, based in Warren, N.J. Celgene provided medication free of charge to the study participants. Lower has no financial interests or holdings in Celgene Corporation.
Bullets—Use bullets to introduce individual sections of a list. Capitalize the first word following the bullet. Use periods, not commas or semicolons, at the end of each section, whether it is a full sentence or a phrase.
cesarean section—This follows 2009 AP style update (yes, lower-case c). C-section is acceptable on second usage
Caps—(See also Titles, Upper and Lower, and Headlines) When departments and divisions are presented within the clear context that we are talking about UC, they should be capitalized. Also cap centers, institutes and certain programs. In the case of other institutions, only capitalize when it is part of the official name of the institution.
e.g., the nursing development department
he’s in nursing development
the Center for Gallstone Treatment
the gallstone center
The University of Cincinnati Department of Surgery
The UC Department of Surgery
the Department of Surgery (if it's clear that we are talking about UC)
the surgery department
University of Michigan Department of Surgery
He is a member of the department of surgery at the University of Michigan.
Captions (cutlines)—Personal names and titles standing alone take no period in captions. Sentences end in a period.
Jane Smith, MD
Jane Smith, MD, vice president
Smith delivers the State of the Center address.
Identification within captions—left, right, center, etc.—should be in parentheses and in same font. E.g., John Smith (left) receives the award.
Cardiovascular Health and Disease—Division of Cardiovascular Health and Disease within the College of Medicine's Department of Internal Medicine. Name was changed in 2013 from Division of Cardiovascular Diseases.
Care—Do not hyphenate "care” compound adjectives preceding noun, e.g., "health care services,” "primary care physician.” However, follow the usage in other organizations’ names: South Park Healthcare Center, Hollwood HealthCare Inc.
CARE Building (CARE/Crawley Building)—It's officially the Center for Academic and Research Excellence/Crawley Building, or the CARE/Crawley Building. CARE/Crawley Building is acceptable on first reference. Address is 3230 Eden Ave., 45267.
Caregiver—Now one word according to Webster.
CCTST—See Center for Clinical and Translational Science and Training.
Center—Cap when full, formal name is used: the University of Houston Medical Center, the University of Cincinnati Gallstone Treatment Center. Thereafter it’s "the center,” "this center” etc. E.g., "The procedure is now being used in every major medical center in the United States.”
Center for Clinical and Translational Science and Training—The Center for Clinical and Translational Science and Training is the academic home of the university’s institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) from the National Institutes of Health. Use Center for Clinical and Translational Science and Training on first reference. Can be abbreviated to CCTST on subsequent references. Use the following line to explain when writing about CCTST: CCTST is the academic home of the university’s institutional Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health.
Center for the History of the Health Professions—formal name is the Henry R. Winkler Center for the History of the Health Professions. Named in March 2009 to honor the former president (1977-1984) of the University of Cincinnati. Use formal name on first reference and either the Winkler Center for the History of the Health Professions, the Center for the History of the Health Professions or the Center on second reference. The Center is located in the Donald C. Harrison Health Sciences Library in the Medical Sciences Building (MSB) on the university's medical campus. It was founded in 1974 as the Medical Heritage Center.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—CDC on second reference.
Centers of Excellence—This term should be capitalized only when referring to the College of Medicine's four Centers of Excellence (cancer, cardiovascular, neuroscience and metabolic disorders). E.g., "She plays a major role in shaping the college's Centers of Excellence." Thereafter, it's "the centers," etc. All other centers of excellence should be lower case.
Children's Hospital—First reference is Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Thereafter: "Cincinnati Children's."
Cincinnati Cancer Center—For all cancer-related news releases and stories, use the following boilerplate:
___________________________(i.e., University of Cincinnati Medical Center / Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center / University of Cincinnati / UC Barrett Cancer Center at University of Cincinnati Medical Center / Prostate Cancer Mobile Screening Program) is part of the Cincinnati Cancer Center, a collaborative initiative of the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and UC Health that aspires to create a world-class comprehensive center leading in innovation to eliminate cancer. Cross-institutional and cross-departmental research teams work to achieve this goal through efforts in three programmatic research themes: molecular and cellular basis of cancer; molecular therapeutics and diagnosis; and cancer etiology, control and prevention. Learn more at. cincinnaticancercenter.org.
Cincinnati Children's Location S—Formal name is William Cooper Procter Research Pavilion. Reserve that usage for external communications. For internal communications, use Location S as that is how the building is referred to internally and for wayfinding.
Cincinnati Children's Location T—Formal name is Clinical Sciences Pavilion. Reserve that usage for external communications. For internal communications, use Location T as that is how the building is referred to internally and for wayfinding.
Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation (CCRF)—They have dropped use of "Hospital" in this title.
Cholesterol—LDL cholesterol (no hyphen). HDL cholesterol (no hyphen). LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, the "bad” cholesterol. HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein, the "good” cholesterol. "LDL cholesterol” and "HDL cholesterol” can be used on first reference.
Cities—The following cities (source AP) are so well known they don’t need to be followed by their state name in body text:
Salt Lake City
Class—Uppercase and list out full year, as in:
The college welcomed 93 new students to the Class of 2020 Doctor of Pharmacy program.
Co-—Follow AP guidelines: Retain the hyphen when forming nouns, adjectives and verbs that indicate occupation or status (co-author, co-director); use no hyphen in other combinations (coed, cooperate). Where AP is fuzzy, use judgment. For example, use hyphen in co-morbidity.
College of Medicine—Do not abbreviate as COM.
Colleges—when referring collectively to the four colleges that compose the UC Academic Health Center, it is the colleges of allied health sciences, medicine, nursing and pharmacy (all lower case). Proper names of the four colleges are College of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, College of Nursing and James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy. On second reference, "the college" or, in the case of the pharmacy college, "the Winkle College of Pharmacy," are acceptable.
Colon-rectal—Hyphenate, or colorectal.
Colons—Follow by one space only. Use cap following them in headlines.
E.g., Mister Magoo: A Man of Vision
Commas—Come inside quotes. Semicolons and colons fall outside. AP does not use a (serial) comma before the last element in a series, E.g., Nouns, pronouns, verbs and adverbs. However, in some constructions, if each element is unavoidably long, it should be used for clarity.
Committees—Capitalize full names. Lowercase otherwise: She served on the college’s Continuing Education Committee. Lowercase in general use, e.g., "A committee will be formed,” and ‘An advisory committee was established.”
Compound adjectives with "ly”—”rapidly increasing,” "naturally occurring,” etc., aren’t hyphenated.
Daniel Drake Center for Post-Acute Care—UC Health facility located at 151 West Galbraith Road in Hartwell. Formerly known as the Drake Center. On first reference, use complete name. On second reference, use Daniel Drake Center.
Dashes—There are three:
The hyphen -
The en-dash: "The 1939–45 war."
The em-dash: This one "—." Use to introduce quotes and as parenthesis. Use em-dash flush left and right—like this.
Dates—Don't use a comma between the month and year, as in "August 1992." Use comma when day is used: "Aug. 24, 1939.” Dates following "from" or "between" should not be connected by a dash (en-dash in type) WRONG: He served from 1975–79. RIGHT: He served from 1975 to 1979. WRONG: He did it sometime between 1980–85. RIGHT: He did it sometime between 1980 and 1985. Use dash in locutions like "The period 1985–86 ... "; "The meeting will be held May 3–4." The key is the governing preposition.
Abbreviate months in body text when used with a number ... Oct. 4. Spell them out if you like in "display text," e.g., invitations, plaques, etc., but be internally consistent.
Daylight saving time—No hyphen. Also see Time zones.
Deaconess Health Campus—The site of the former Deaconess Hospital at 311 Straight St., now known as Deaconess Health Campus. Use University of Cincinnati Medical Center at Deaconess to refer to psychiatric services offered at the site.
Decades and centuries—Spell out numbers under 10 and lowercase century. "The 20th century is ... "; "in the ninth century." Don't use apostrophes when referring to decades: Wrong: the ’60s. Right: the 1960s. See Plurals of numbers.
Degrees (academic)—As a rule, avoid "Dr." in internal publications. " Write "David Jones, MD," in first reference and "Jones" thereafter. Exceptions are allowed for certain external uses, e.g., speeches, obituaries, etc.
OK to use MD, PhD and PharmD in news releases and internal and external publications. For others, describe the person as holding a doctorate in education, for example. (Also see entry for PharmD.)
Use only PhD, MD or PharmD as degrees. For others, such as AuD, write, "... Jones, who holds a doctorate in audiology ..."
Don't use undergraduate and master's degrees—BA, MA, etc. But OK to cite undergrad degrees in references such as "He earned a BA in industrial design from DAAP."
Don't use society memberships and fellowships with physicians' names. Keep to "John Donne, MD," and drop FRCS, FACS, etc.
Degrees (measure)—In general spell out in body text. Use superscript oto save space in tables and parenthetic material.
Diabetes—It's Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes (cap T, no hyphen, and numerals), per AP style.
Distance learning—No hyphen, even as compound adjective.
Dos (as in dos and don’ts)—Webster gives dos as first choice for plural of do. Second choice is do's. For consistency use Webster's first choice.
Dr. Stanley and Mickey Kaplan Reception Hall— That is the name for the area between the CARE/Crawley atrium and the dining area. Named in honor of the late Stanley Kaplan, MD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral neuroscience, and his wife, Mickey.
Drake Center—see Daniel Drake Center for Post-Acute Care.
Drug names—Always use generic drug name. On first reference, include generally known trade name in parentheses following generic name.
E.g.—Follow by a comma, e.g., like this! Note, e.g. is the abbreviation for exempli gratia, Latin for "for example." Don't confuse with i.e., id est, which means "that is."
Eden Avenue Garage—Initial caps. Address is 3223 Eden Ave., 45267.
Ellipsis points—Those little dots ... AP Style calls for space before, space after, and none between. See AP Punctuation section on how to use ellipsis points with other punctuation.
Email—No hyphen, and lowercase every letter in an email address.
Em-dashes—Don't space before and after the dash—like this!
En-dash—Longer than a hyphen, shorter than an em-dash. Use between numerals when a span or range is expressed, e.g., 1939–45; children aged 10–15. Also used when "hyphenating" elements that are themselves compounds, e.g., The Licking Valley–Campbell County Hospital Consortium. However, use a preposition or conjunction instead of a dash when the number combination is preceded by a preposition:
E.g., He served from 1986 to 1989 (not "from 1986–89”)
They treated between 30 and 50 patients a day. (not "between 30–50”)
Use en-dashes when prepositions don't govern the thing:
E.g., Sally lived in Europe during the 1939–45 war.
Floors—Lowercase "floor" and follow numbers-under-10 rule. E.g., first floor, 10th floor. In MSB identify lettered levels as such, e.g., E-level, G-level, and the numbered ones as floors, e.g., third floor, seventh floor. Used hyphen with lettered floor addresses: G-187, R-101.
Foreign names—Follow AP under this heading for capping of von, van, le, la and other particles in foreign names. They are always capped when they begin a sentence, but within a sentence usage varies depending on the nationality of person named and whether or not the particle follows a first name. Americans tend to cap them. Speakers of the original language tend not to. Follow the person's preference if known, check biography or find solution in Chicago's thorough treatment.
Fort—See Place names.
French Building—Technically the Hastings L. and William A. French Building, but French East is acceptable. Address is 3202 Eden Ave., 45267.
Harrison Health Sciences Library—Formal name is the Donald C. Harrison Health Sciences Library. Located in the Medical Sciences Building (MSB) on the university's medical campus, the library serves the colleges of medicine, pharmacy, nursing and allied health sciences. It was named in 2008 for Donald C. Harrison, MD, former provost of the UC Academic Health Center. Use formal name on first reference and Harrison Health Sciences Library on second reference.
HDL cholesterol—No hyphen. HDL cholesterol can be used on first reference. HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein, the "good” cholesterol.
Headlines—According to AP, capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters.Capitalize articles (the, a, an) or words of fewer than four letters if they are the first or last words in a title.
NOTE: With upper-and-lower style, when headline is a two- or three-decker and more, don’t cap each new line, just first and last words.
e.g., Legislature Rules on Abortion Issue
Health care, health-care—See Care.
Health Professions Building—As of June 23, 2015, the Health Professions Building is now Joseph F. Kowalewski Hall. Kowalewski Hall is OK on
Hematology oncology—No hyphen or slash between those two words.
HIPAA—HIPAA stands for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, enabled in 1996.
Hospital—Lowercase when word stands alone. "This procedure was first used at University of Cincinnati Medical Center.” "Our staff worked closely with OB-GYN surgeons at the hospital.” It's University of Cincinnati Medical Center, without a "the" or "The." (Drop the article in other hospital names, regardless of what their usage is.)
Places—Lowercase cafeteria, lobby, main lobby, information desk, coffee shop, gift shop, third floor etc.
Hyphens—Follow AP. Most words with prefixes, e.g., "non,” "post” etc., are nonhyphenated. Compound qualifiers ending with "ly”—"rapidly increasing,” "naturally occurring,” aren’t hyphenated.
Hyphenated numbers—Use en-dashes, not hyphens, in expressions like 1989–91. However, use a preposition or conjunction instead of a dash when the number combination is preceded by a preposition:
E.g., He served from 1986 to 1989 (not "from 1986–89”)
They manufactured between 300 and 500 trocars a day (not "between 300–500”)
Use hyphens (en-dashes) when prepositions don’t govern the thing:
E.g., Kelly Douglas lived in Europe during the 1939–45 war.
i.e.—Abbreviation for Latin, "id est,” meaning "that is,” not to be confused with e.g., "exempli gratia,” meaning "for example.”
"In the French-speaking areas of Europe, i.e., France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland, our marketing is managed locally” implies these are the French-speaking areas of Europe ... all of them.
Use e.g. when what follows are just a few of what you’re talking about, the implication being that there are more: "Some of the more recently arrived ethnic groups, e.g., Koreans, Indians and Pakistanis, are successfully establishing themselves in small community businesses ... ” Implied is that other recent immigrant groups are doing the same thing.
Institute for the Study of Health—In second reference use "institute” ... formerly Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research
Italics and punctuation—Punctuation follows the typeface immediately preceding it (with exception of parentheses marks). E.g., He said what?
NOTE: Apostrophes (possessives and some plurals) of boldfaced or italicized words are not boldfaced or italicized, e.g., "Dan Smith’sstudy ... ”
Joint Cancer Program—See entry for Cincinnati Cancer Center. Joint Commission—An independent, not-for-profit organization, the Joint Commission accredits and certifies more than 18,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States. Formerly known at the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO), since 2007 it has been known simply as the Joint Commission. Refer to it on all references as the Joint Commission, do not use its former acronym (JCAHO) and do not capitalize "The" before Joint Commission unless it begins a sentence. Journal articles, papers, lectures, etc. (magazine, journal and book sections)—Enclose in quotes.
Kingsgate Marriott Conference Center at the University of Cincinnati—Hotel and conference center operated by Marriott International and located on the medical campus of the University of Cincinnati. Kingsgate Marriott is acceptable on second reference. Address is 151 Goodman Drive, 45219.
Kowalewski Hall—Formerly the Health Professions Building, Joseph F. Kowalewski Hall is named in honor of the former dean of UC's pharmacy school. Kowalewski Hall is OK on first reference.
LDL cholesterol—No hyphen. LDL cholesterol can be used on first reference. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, the "bad” cholesterol.
Lectures—Put in quotes.
Less—Does not take hyphen with two-word modifier, even when it precedes the noun. Nor does "more.” Level I—See Trauma Centers.
Levine Drive—Levine Drive is the short street between Levine Park and Logan Hall. It is named for Maurice Levine, MD, chair of the psychiatry department from 1947 until his death in 1971.
Lindner Center of HOPE—The Lindner Center of HOPE, located in Mason, Ohio, is a free-standing nonprofit mental health center. It is jointly owned by UC Health and the Lindner Family Foundation but is a separate corporation with its own fiduciary board. Its caregivers are faculty members of the UC Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience.
Lists—Introduce with a colon.
Besides surgeons, consider other potential customers:
Operating room head nurses Materials management directors Consortium purchasing agents
Don’t use a colon if the list is a complement or object of an element in the introductory statement.
Candidates include (or are)
Staff with appropriate education or experience
NOTE: Don't follow elements in such lists with commas. If an element is a complete sentence, use a period. However, try to avoid mixing punctuated and nonpunctuated elements.
LLC— no comma when used after company name, i.e. Bexion LLC. Consistent with AP Style and UC Stylebook.
Mail location—Spell out lowercase in text. In lists or when copy must be tight, use "ML” without periods.
Medical Arts Building—See UC Health Physicians Office–Clifton.
Medical Campus—Preferred over East Campus. Medical Office Building—See UC Health Physicians Office North.
Meetings—Uppercase names when full, formal name is used: second annual meeting of the Society of Gerontology, 12th annual meeting of the Pershing Society, the Marting Lecture Series. Note that a meeting is not "annual" until there's been at least one. UC style calls for "annual meeting" to be lowercase in all uses.
Middle initials—UC style says generally avoid them.
Months—Abbreviate in texts when used with a number. Spell out in "display texts” like announcements, invitations, plaques, etc.
More—Does not take a hyphen when used as two-word modifier before the noun. Nor does "less.”
More than vs. over—"Over" is perfectly acceptable, as in "Over 10,000 people attended." Even AP agrees, as of March 21, 2014.
Names—Avoid middle initials, except in formal texts, e.g., invitations, programs etc.
National—Don’t claim that UC is a national leader in anything unless you can prove it with a credible source or data.
NetWellness—NetWellness is a nonprofit, consumer-health Web site that provides high-quality information created and evaluated by medical and health professional faculty at the University of Cincinnati, Case Western Reserve University and Ohio State University. NetWellness is dedicated to improving the health of Ohioans and people worldwide through information that is scientifically sound, of high quality and unbiased. The 300 health professionals who respond to questions include physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, dentists, genetics counselors, optometrists, athletic trainers and social workers.
See Boilerplate for other stock descriptions.
UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute—first reference is University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute; second reference "the institute" (preferred), or UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute. *If University of Cincinnati is already spelled out in piece, first reference can be UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute.
Don't use: UC Gardner Institute or UC Neuroscience; UCGNI for internal reference only.
Stock description to be used in releases mentioning the institute: The University of Cincinnati Gardner Neuroscience Institute, established in 1998, comprises clinical care, research centers and educational programs that focus on the main diseases of the brain and nerves.
These research centers are: UC Brain Tumor Center UC Comprehensive Stroke Center UC Epilepsy Center UC Gardner Family Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders UC Headache and Facial Pain Center UC Memory Disorders Center UC Mood Disorders Center UC Neurobiology Research Center UC Neuromuscular Center UC Neurosensory Disorders Center UC Neurotrauma Center UC Waddell Center for Multiple Sclerosis
In addition, the following are programs that fall under UCNI: UC Neurocritical Care Program UC Neurorestorative Program
Newspaper names—Use italics without quotes. Use capped "The” only if actually included in the newspaper’s nameplate (top of Page 1).
No.—Abbreviation for "number.” Use with initial cap in body text. "We are No. 1 in the whole nation.” Don’t use #.
Non—As a prefix, nonhyphenated most of the time. See Webster. See Hyphens.
Noon—Use "noon” for midday. Never 12 p.m. or 12 noon.
Note to Editors—Should be placed on news releases between contact information and the news release headline. Links should take the reader directly to the page containing the information on healthnews.uc.edu. Must take the following form:
NOTE TO EDITORS: High-resolution images of John Smith, MD, are available at healthnews.uc.edu.
NOTE TO EDITORS: High-resolution images of John Smith, MD, and Mary Jones, PhD, are available at healthnews.uc.edu.
NOTE TO EDITORS: High-resolution images of the brain transplant procedure are available at healthnews.uc.edu.
Numbers—With some exceptions, spell out up to nine. Use numerals from 10 on. Per AP style, these guidelines include a series, or when numbers are grouped for comparison.
Do not begin a sentence with a numeral, unless it's a year.
It is perfectly permissible to use numerals under 10 in headlines.
Units of measure and percentages are always expressed in numerals, e.g., 3 mm, 4 percent. However, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months and years in lay text are not usually treated as units of measure. In technical text, clinical study results, tables, graphs, etc., they can be seen as units of measure (and save space). In general, spell out under 10 in general body text, but use numerals for tables and graphs. See Units of measure.
Always use numeral and cap P when "page" is used with a figure: Continued on Page 2, See Page 123.
OB-GYN—As given in Webster’s Collegiate and Webster’s Medical Dictionary.
OK—Webster's first choice, so use instead of "okay.”
"One or more” is a "notional plural,” according to Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, and Bernstein says the same applies for "one or two.” In phrases like "One in four people (has or have?) ... both singular and plural are used, but in modern English the plural predominates: "One out of 10 soldiers are unable to recognize the enemy in the dark.” The singular is in the minority but "still in respectable use.”
ORDINAL NUMBERS—Spell out under 10. Use numerals thereafter. E.g., second annual meeting of the American Board of Physical Therapy; 12th annual meeting of the ....
ORTHOPAEDICS—This is the spelling we use, including for the UC Department of Orthopaedics.
Panzeca Way—Panzeca Way is the short street between Eden Avenue Garage and Wherry Hall. The address for the Kettering Lab Complex is 160 Panzeca Way, 45267. The address for Radiation Safety is 170 Panzeca Way, 45267.
Pap test (not smear)—It’s Pap, initial cap (named after George Papanicolaou).
Page numbers—Spell out and capitalize Page when used with a page number. E.g., "See related story Page 3." Always use numerals.
Parentheses—Parenthetic material within a sentence does not need a capital letter, e.g., "It’s generally believed (don’t take my word for it) that ... ” Stand-alone text in parentheses should take normal cap and punctuation: (Turn to next page for complete price list.)
Percentages—Always with numeral, even if nine or under. Spell out "percent” in body, but use "%” in lists, charts etc. where space is tight. Percent compounds are not hyphenated: 10 percent increase.
Percent, singular or plural?—You decide. Singular or plural here is "notional,” determined by the noun. "Eighty percent of family doctors make house calls,” but "25 percent of the population was overweight.”
Periods—Don’t use in most abbreviations and acronyms, e.g., MD, IV, CORVA, but UC (without periods) uses periods in U.S.
PharmD—Abbreviation for Doctor of Pharmacy. OK to use in internal and external publications and news releases. Do not use periods.
Phase—As in clinical trials, lowercase and use Arabic, not Roman numerals, e.g., in phase 2 of the trial; the phase-3 clinical trial.
Place names—Go by Geographical Names section in Webster’s Tenth, Page 1439. Use first choice given, e.g., Vietnam, not Viet Nam or Viet-Nam. But use "St. Louis” rather than Webster’s choice, "Saint Louis”—the abbreviated version is far more common. Same applies to "Mt.” instead of "Mount.” (But it's College of Mount St. Joseph.)
Possessives—See Apostrophe s.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)—No hyphen.
Plurals of numbers—Don’t use apostrophe to form plurals. Make it: in the 1960s. See also reference under Decades and Centuries.
Precision Radiotherapy—Precision Radiotherapy at 7710 Discovery Drive on the UC Health West Chester campus, it is a partnership of UC Health Radiation Oncology and the Mayfield Clinic. It provides stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer, benign tumors and other abnormalities of the head and body.
Prefixes—Follow Webster’s spellings. Many found in table format. See Hyphens above.
Preventive vs. preventative—Preventive is UC's (and just about everybody’s) style, but use source’s usage in titles of papers, meetings etc.
Procter—"e" not "o" for both the building that houses the College of Nursing, and in Procter & Gamble.
Program—Cap "P” when used in formal name, e.g., Employee Benefits Program. Subsequent references would be to "the program.”
Punctuation and boldface—Immediately following boldface, italics etc., punctuation takes boldface, italics etc. E.g., In "Dan Storer, MD, director of the program,” the comma following boldface text is in boldface.
Radioactive elements—Lowercase name and use number on same line: e.g., "technetium 123.”
RN—RN (Registered Nurse) is acceptable for use in all communications.
Reverend (or Rev.)—Always use with "the” before a person’s name in first reference. "The Reverend Jones was defrocked.” Abbreviate to "the Rev.” when full name is used, "the Rev. Joseph Smith gave the benediction.” Use name without "the Rev.” in second references.
Room numbers—Use the following format: "The seminar will take place in Medical Sciences Building Room E-351."
Ruth Lyons Way—Ruth Lyons Way is the short street starting east of Eden Avenue and continuing to Piedmont Avenue, curving between the UC Health Barrett Center and the UC Health Physicians Office-Clifton. It is named for Ruth Lyons, the late, beloved midday host on WLWT-TV, Channel 5, whose only child, Candy Newman, died of cancer at age 21.
Semicolons (and colons)—Come outside quotes, e.g., Speakers and their topics were: Geetha Bhat, "Heart Transplantation 1991”; Curt Bubel, "Viruses: The Most Efficient of All Living Things”; and Eric Gruenstein, "Looking inside Living Cells with Video Image Analysis.” Commas always come inside. (In older texts and British style they frequently came outside, but this usage is no longer standard in the United States.)
Sentence spacing—One space at the end of a sentence. Same as AP and UC stylebook. [This is easy to find and replace all in a Word doc with Ctrl+H ". " to ". "]
Serial commas—AP doesn’t use the "serial comma” in lists, i.e., a comma before the final "and” in a series. E.g., Cheryl, Leigh, Jaymie and Ray. The semicolon is at your disposal if clarity requires it in a long sentence or complicated list. Shriners Hospitals for Children—The official name of the hospital system. Use full name on first reference. For subsequent references, Shriners Hospitals is acceptable.
When referring to Cincinnati's hospital, it's Shriners Hospitals for Children–Cincinnati (with en en-dash).
When referring to the system as a whole, follow with a singular verb, even when using Shriners Hospitals: Shriners Hospitals was separately incorporated in 1936. When referring to two or more individual hospitals, follow with a plural verb: The Shriners Hospitals providing burn care are located in Boston, Cincinnati, Galveston and Sacramento.
Society memberships and fellowships—Don’t use society memberships and fellowships with physicians’ names. Keep to "John Donne, MD,” and drop FRCS, FACS, etc.
Spanish Surnames—Follow AP Style: The normal sequence is given name, father's family name, mother's family name: for example, Maria Gomez Rodriguez. On second reference, use only the father's family name (Gomez), unless the individual prefers or is widely known by a multiple last name (Gomez Rodriguez).
Specialties—See Academic fields.
Spelling—When a choice of spelling is given, accept the first in Webster. Use also for abbreviations and place names. When a choice of spelling is given, accept the first.
States—Following AP style update, spell out full state names in text. For lists and tabular material, use abbreviations below. For mailing addresses, always use postal abbreviation (listed below in parentheses).
Stroke—The name of the Center of Excellence within UC Health is the UC Comprehensive Stroke Center. The name of the stroke team is the UC Stroke Team. The name of the telestroke program is the UC Health Telestroke Network.
Sub- and superscripts—See The Chicago Manual of Style. Note, chemical elements take neither in general texts. Write number on same line, e.g., carbon 14. See Chicagoif you have to work with technical texts.
Telephone numbers—Use AP style: 513-558-4559. Don’t include the "1” before area codes or 800 numbers.
Time zones—Daylight saving time begins in the United States on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November. On the second Sunday in March, clocks are set ahead one hour at 2 a.m. local standard time, which becomes 3 a.m. local daylight time. On the first Sunday in November, clocks are set back one hour at 2 a.m. local daylight time, which becomes 1 a.m. local standard time.
We should use embargo times identified as EST or EDT accordingly. If we’re giving a Pacific time, it would be PDT, but always use the time zone local to us in our releases.
Titles—Civil, military, religious and professional titles and titles of nobility used before names are capped when they immediately precede a personal name, as part of the name. Used in apposition to the name (i.e., more or less as a description) they are not capped.
E.g., "The address was given by President Gray of the University of Chicago,” "Hanna Gray, president of the University of Chicago,” "former UC interim president Monica Rimai," "Edward Smith, president of Smith Corporation.” "Smith has been president of the company for 10 years.” Don’t cap titles like director, chairman, or manager before or after a name:
Vice President Thomas Boat told the meeting …
The institution’s vice president, Thomas Boat, MD, …
He put the question to Professor Singer.
Sandra Singer, professor of surgery at the UC College of Medicine … When I first met General Schwartzkopf …
Norman Schwartzkopf, the general who led U.S. troops in Kuwait …
Unlike U.S. presidents, corporate presidents are not usually addressed formally as, e.g., "President Jones.” Make it "Acme president Jones told the meeting …”
He asked company director Joanne Berkoff to speak.
The committee honored chairperson Phineas Ford.
However, such titles are usually capitalized before and following the name in formal usage, as in acknowledgments, lists of contributors or speakers, programs etc.
According to Chicago, "named” professorships are upper and lower, e.g., Lauren Kile, MD, Marie and Arthur Beatty Professor of Geriatrics. Unnamed professorships aren’t: Amanda Smith, MD, professor of radiology.
Trademarks and symbols—We are not required to use ™ and ® marks. That’s the responsibility of the owners of the product or intellectual property in their own marketing/promotional materials. When it’s a proprietary name, we merely initial cap it: Anacin, Pyrex, Ping-Pong, etc. If the product owner uses unorthodox capitalization, all we have to do is provide an initial cap. E.g., They might label them DIXIE® cups, but we call them Dixie cups.
Trauma centers—Uppercase the levels and use Roman numerals: University of Cincinnati Medical Center has a Level I adult trauma center; The center is designated as Level I.
Tristate—No hyphen and initial cap for our Southern Ohio, Northern Kentucky, southeastern Indiana region.
UC Health Holmes Hospital—Located at corner of Eden Avenue and Albert Sabin Way, it is the home to several UC Health Internal Medicine providers, UC Health Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery services, University Health Services (medical campus) and various other services.
UC Health Pain Medicine Center—Located on the UC Health West Chester campus.
UC Health Physicians Office–Clifton—Located at 222 Piedmont Ave. on the UC medical campus, it houses clinical and administrative offices for UC Health. Formerly the Medical Arts Building.
UC Health Physicians Office North—Located at 7690 Discovery Drive on the UC Health West Chester campus, it houses clinical offices for UC Health.
UC Health Physicians Office South—Located at 7675 Wellness Way on the UC Health West Chester campus and attached to West Chester Hospital, it houses clinical offices for UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians.
UC Health Physicians Office at Stetson—Located in the Stetson Building at 260 Stetson St., these offices are the home of UC Health Psychiatry outpatient treatment.
UC Health Varsity Village Imaging Center—Located in the Richard E. Lindner Center on UC's west campus.
UC Health Weight Loss Center—Located at 7798 Discovery Drive, Suite E, on the UC Health West Chester campus, it offers weight-loss solutions including gastric bypass, gastric sleeve and gastric banding. Outpatient services are provided in the main office, with surgical procedures performed at West Chester Hospital and West Chester Hospital Surgical Center.
UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute—See Neuroscience Institute.
Units of measure—AP style spells out "inch,” "pound,” "foot,” etc. Follow Webster for metric abbreviations, e.g., cm, mm, ml. Spell out for clarity in releases in first reference; 7 centimeters (cm) ...
Note also that numbers in units of measure are generally not spelled out, even when nine and under, e.g., 4 pounds 6 ounces (4 lb 6 oz). Plurals of abbreviated units do not require an "s.” To complicate matters, seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, years, etc., usually are not regarded as units of measure in general stories, whereas in technical copy, e.g., columns of data, they often are. Be consistent.
University—Lowercase when used alone. E.g., "The university has made significant progress."
University of Cincinnati Board of Trustees (UC Board of Trustees)—See Board of Trustees.
University of Cincinnati Cancer (UC) Center Institute—This should be used in stories that reference all cancer-related centers, programs and affiliated physicians, researchers and/or teams.
Second reference: UC Cancer Institute.
Institute boilerplate: For use at the end of all cancer-related written stories and to describe institute relationship between UC and UC Health: The UC Cancer Institute is one of four institutes of UC Health and the UC College of Medicine. The Comprehensive _________ Cancer Center is one of five disease-based centers of the UC Cancer Institute. Learn more at uccancer.com.
Center description: UC Cancer Institute Comprehensive __________ Cancer Center. This name should be used for the five primary comprehensive centers: lung, head and neck, gastrointestinal, breast and brain (see exception below). The other disease-based teams (i.e., genitourinary, gynecologic oncology etc) are not considered comprehensive at this time. The term "comprehensive" has specific metrics tied to it, as judged by the UC Cancer Institute leadership. For these teams the style would be: UC Cancer Institute ________ Cancer Center.
UC Brain Tumor Center: This is a comprehensive center that is shared across the UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute and UC Cancer Institute. Because of this, we honor the original name of the center: UC Brain Tumor Center. Boilerplate language: The UC Brain Tumor Center is one of nine centers of the UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute and one of five comprehensive disease-based centers of the UC Cancer Institute. Both institutes are partnerships of UC Health and the UC College of Medicine. Learn more about the UC Brain Tumor Center at ucbraintumorcenter.com.
Faculty identifiers: In media coverage ... primary identifer for UC Cancer Institute-affiliated physicians and researchers should be the UC Cancer Institute. This represents both UC and UC Health by nature of the partnership. In written materials ... primary identifier should be the physician/researchers's specialty with the UC Cancer Institute and disease-based center on first reference. On second reference, include academic title and primary clinical practice location, if applicable.
University of Cincinnati Medical Center—This name change (from University Hospital) became effective Dec. 10, 2012. It's now University of Cincinnati Medical Center, without a "the" or "The." (Drop the article in other hospital names, regardless of what their usage is.) On first reference: University of Cincinnati Medical Center. On second reference: UC Medical Center or UCMC.
University of Cincinnati Medical Center at Deaconess—Use this term to refer to University of Cincinnati Medical Center services offered at the former Deaconess Hospital (now known as Deaconess Health Campus). These services include the UC Health Psychiatry Services Unit and UC Hospital Psychiatric Emergency Services.
URLs—Use the shortest version of a specific URL that still gets you to where you are going. Web addressess beginning with http://www, http:// alone, or just www should be tested without each prefix. If the address still works without its prefix, then the shortened version should be used. For example, http://www.med.uc.edu can be shortened to med.uc.edu.
In Web or other electronic communication, addresses like the one above should be hyperlinked if the hyperlink is not automatically created.
U.S.—UC style uses periods in this abbreviation. We normally don’t use periods in initialisms and acronyms (e.g., UC, MAB, MSB). Also, use U.S. as a preceding adjective only. Spell out "United States” when standing alone. In headlines, it's US (no periods).
U.S.News & World Report—Thus displayed on mag’s nameplate. No space between U.S. and News.
U-Square at the Loop—Although this commercial area is not part of the university, UC has offices there and it is frequently mentioned in print. The complex opened in 2013 and is between Calhoun and McMillan streets. Use a hyphen.
VA—Is now the Department of Veterans Affairs, no longer Veterans "Administration.” Describe the local hospital in first reference as Cincinnati Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, and thereafter as the VA Medical Center or the VA .
Veterans Affairs—See VA.
Vontz Center—properly the Vontz Center for Molecular Studies. Address is 3125 Eden Ave., 45267.
Washington—In accordance with the AP stylebook, use state of Washington or Washington state and Washington, D.C., or District of Columbia when the context requires distinction between the state and the federal district.
Web Addresses—See entry for URLs.
website—One word. Uppercase as short form of World Wide Web, but lowercase compound words formed with the word Web: World Wide Web, the Web, Web page, website, webcast, webmaster. Spelling is aligned with the AP stylebook.
Well-being—Hyphenated, per AP style.
West Chester Hospital—Not West Chester Medical Center, its former name. Use UC Health West Chester Hospital on first reference, West Chester Hospital thereafter.
West Chester Hospital Outpatient Imaging Center—Formerly University Pointe Imaging Center.
West Chester Hospital Sleep Medicine Center—Formerly UC Health Sleep Medicine Center, it has two locations on the UC Health West Chester campus: The outpatient office is located at 7798 Discovery Drive, Suite E. Sleep labs are located in the West Chester Hospital Surgical Center (see below).
West Chester Hospital Surgical Center—West Chester Hospital Surgical Center (formerly University Pointe Surgical Hospital) is located at 7750 Discovery Drive on the UC Health West Chester campus. Both inpatient and outpatient surgeries are performed at the eight-bed hospital, which includes four operating rooms and two procedure rooms.
ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) codes (abbreviation of state names with)—When a ZIP code is used in a mailing address, use the two-letter, uppercase state name abbreviation (see States above) preferred by the U.S. Post Office (computers can read them), e.g., "4545 Creek Road, Cincinnati, OH 45242.”
In other contexts, however, use the traditional abbreviations. Do not use the two-letter, all-cap abbreviations in body text. For list of ZIP and traditional state abbreviations, see States above.